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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, New York. He died on January 6, 1919, Sagamore Hill, Oyster Bay, New York. He was an American politician, the 26th U.S. president (1901-1909, Republican Party) , leader of the progressive wing of the Republican policy of “big stick” in regard to Latin America, supported by Japan in the Russian-Japanese war. Nobel Peace Prize (1906) for his efforts in prison Peace of Portsmouth.

Coming from a family of Knickerbocker (the descendants of the Dutch-old residents of New York), Theodore Roosevelt graduated from Harvard University (1880), also studied at Columbia University. After the publication of the book “Marine War of 1812″ (1882), he gained reputation as a serious historian and subsequently alternated politically active with a literary work. Best known for his four-volume study of “The Winning of the West”, 1889-1896. Active leader of the Republican Party, Roosevelt was a member of the legislature of the State of New York (1882-1884), opposed the political machine of the Democratic Party, and has long dominated the New York. February 14, 1884 on the same day he lost his mother and wife in the same year lost the next election to the legislature and went to Dakota, where he lived on a ranch. Back in New York, he worked in the Civil Service Commission (1889-1995), led the Police Department of New York (1895-1897). Theodore Roosevelt was a supporter of William McKinley and, after the election of the last president, became the deputy of the Navy (1897-1898). At the beginning of the Spanish-American War (1898), Roosevelt formed a volunteer cavalry (Rough Riders) and became famous in the fighting in Cuba. Having returned a hero from the war, he was elected governor of New York (1899-1901). As a politician, he called upon to carry out a power foreign policy, consistently pursue expansionist geopolitical goals, particularly in Latin America and the Pacific, the required building a large navy. In domestic policy, he has established himself as a reformer.

Theodore-Roosevelt

In 1900, Theodore Roosevelt was nominated for vice-president from the Republican Party and was elected to this position, and after the assassination of President McKinley, September 14, 1901 he became the youngest at the time the U.S. president. One of his first presidential initiatives was the use of the Sherman Antitrust Act against monopolies, especially against the Rockefellers’ Standard Oil. “Roosevelt was convinced of the need to strengthen the role of the state in the internal life of the country and put forward the reform program to establish state control over corporations, the expansion of social legislation. In 1902, during the miners’ strike in Pennsylvania mine owners forced to compromise with the workers. He spent the Act, which extends the powers of the Commission on Interstate Commerce (1903, 1906), has supported measures to restrict immigration. President paid special attention to the protection of natural resources; he created a system of reserves, which is part of the conserved forest, mineral, coal, oil resources of the U.S., has achieved a fivefold expansion of our national parks and reserves.

The main objectives of the foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt considered building an inter-oceanic canal in Panama and to prevent interference of the European powers in the political life of the Western Hemisphere, especially in the Caribbean. His name is related to the policy of “big stick” in relation to Latin America. The Roosevelt imposed in 1901, U.S. troops occupied Cuba, the so-called “correction fee” and other unequal agreements, suppressed in Cuba national liberation uprising. Later, in the years 1906-1909, Cuba was once again occupied by American troops. Roosevelt administration policy largely contributed to the Venezuelan crisis (1902-1903). After the separation of Panama from Colombia and education in the territory of an independent republic (3 November 1903) U.S. control of the Panama Canal Zone. Later, the U.S. established economic control over Venezuela and the Dominican Republic.

In 1904, Theodore Roosevelt won the presidential election, defeating Alton Parker. At the urging of the president, Congress decided to regulate railroad rates, laws as food and medicines (Pure Food and Drug Act), on the control of meat products (Meat Inspection Act, 1906), which provided health safety of the country. Together with the Secretary of State Elihu Root president proposed a so-called correction Roosevelt (Roosevelt corollary) to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated the U.S. position of protector and “policeman” of the Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt was the essence of the amendment is that in order to prevent the intervention of the European powers in the U.S. have the right to make the United States military pressure on Latin American politics. In the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905) the U.S. provided financial and diplomatic support to Japan. U.S. President to mediate custody Portsmouth peace between Russia and Japan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1906).

In 1908, the United States began the next company on the presidential election. By the time Theodore Roosevelt had already been in the White House almost two full terms. Dismissing suggestions of his supporters to run again, the president has supported the election of a new candidacy of Republican presidential candidate William Taft, to a considerable extent helped his election. March 4, 1909 Roosevelt left the White House and at the head of a scientific expedition to Africa. He then traveled to European countries. On his return to the United States (1910) Theodore Roosevelt again involved in the political struggle, putting forward a program of “new nationalism.” By the time the reins of the Republican Party is firmly held in his hands President William Taft. If Roosevelt supported the progressive Republicans are united around Taft moderate and conservative elements. In 1911, Roosevelt created a new Progressive Party, which has led to a split in the Republican camp. In the presidential election in 1912 by Theodore Roosevelt acted as the candidate of the Progressive Party and attended by about 4 million votes, finishing second in the polls. With the split the Republican electorate victory in this election won the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson.

After his defeat in 1912 Roosevelt political activity significantly decreased. In 1912, he was elected president of the American Historical Association in 1913, went on an expedition to South America, in 1914, and explored the unknown river in Brazil, named in his honor Rio Teodoro. After the U.S. entry into World War Roosevelt offered to plan the formation of volunteer division, headed by supposed to take part in the fighting in Europe. Participation in World War I took all four of his sons, and the younger of them, Quentin, was killed in 1918 in a dogfight. Roosevelt developed plans to assist revolutionary Russia, achieved his appointment as head of the dispatch of the official delegation (called Root Mission). Out of the crisis for the post-revolutionary Russia saw to find the right path between the “Romanov Scylla and Charybdis of the Bolshevik.” All my life Theodore Roosevelt was engaged in literary work, has published about 40 books and numerous articles on the history, politics, travel, and nature. He left a great epistolary legacy for many years led a controversial correspondence with LN Thick, criticized his ethical concept and views on issues of war and peace, although he advocated charms “simple life” and proximity to nature.