Dwight D Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower full name is Dwight David Eisenhower, born on October 14, 1890, Denison, pieces. Texas. He died on March 28, 1969, Washington, DC. He was American statesman and military commander of the 34th U.S. President (1953-1961), General of the Army (1944). During the Second World War he was commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Western Europe.
He spent his childhood and youth in the Kansas town of Abilene, where parents are not rich future president moved in 1891 to find work. From childhood he was nicknamed Ike (Ike), which accompanied him throughout his life. After graduating from high school (1909), Eisenhower entered the military academy at West Point, which he successfully graduated in 1915. After the U.S. entry into World War I (April 1917) has been preparing new recruits at Camp. Then he served in the Panama Canal Zone (1922-1925). In 1926 he graduated from the Command and General Staff School of the Army (Army Command and General Staff School), in 1928 – Army War College (Army War College). Under General Douglas MacArthur, Eisenhower served as the headquarters of the Army (1933-1935) and the Philippines (1935-1939). In March 1941byl appointed chief of staff of the Third Army, General B. Krueger. After successful maneuvers in Louisiana, he was promoted to the rank of colonel, then brigadier general.
In December 1941, the United States entered the Second World War, and Dwight Eisenhower was appointed to the post of Chief of Operations Staff of the Army, led by General George Marshall. In June 1942, Eisenhower was named commander of U.S. forces in Europe, and in November of that year, with the rank of lieutenant-led Allied forces in the Mediterranean. Dwight Eisenhower successfully led the Allied offensive in North Africa, Sicily and Italy. Once at the Tehran Conference (28 November – 1 December 1943), it was finally decided to open a second front, in December 1943, Eisenhower was appointed Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Western Europe. The most significant of its achievements as a military leader, he believed the Normandy landing operation (June 1944) and the Rhineland campaign in February and March 1945. By end of 1944, Eisenhower became the five-star general. In May 1945, on behalf of the United States signed the capitulation of Germany.
After the war, Dwight D Eisenhower commanded U.S. occupation troops (May – November 1945), and maintained friendly relations with Marshal Zhukov, who visited at the invitation of the Soviet Union, was awarded the Soviet Order of Victory. On his return to the United States served as Chief of Army Staff (November 1945 – February 1947). In 1948-1950 he was the rector of the Columbia University, and from October 1950 to June 1952 commanded the Allied Forces in Europe.
During the war Dwight Eisenhower gained immense popularity. Both Democrats and Republicans were ready to nominate him for president. Eisenhower chose the Republican Party in the presidential election in 1952 confidently defeated Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson. President Eisenhower’s policy is characterized by duality as the external and the internal areas. In the first year of his presidency, he put an end to the Korean War. Sought to establish a dialogue with the leadership of the Soviet Union – a rival Americans in the Cold War. In 1955 took part in the Geneva Summit on the heads of the USSR, Britain and France. In contacts with the Soviet leadership Dwight Eisenhower tried to find common interests, to alleviate the confrontation between the two social systems, to avoid open hostility. However, Eisenhower was convinced of the reality of the communist threat and the need to strengthen the national security of the United States. Only the powerful armed forces in the West, the vast superiority over the armies of the socialist countries, according to him, could keep the Communists from the temptation to fan the fire of the world revolution, so Americans should play a global leadership role, to rebuff attempts by the spread of Soviet influence in all corners of the world.
During Dwight Eisenhower’s presidency, U.S. foreign policy is determined by state secretary John Dulles – architect of the Cold War. The basis of the defense strategy of the United States was the doctrine of “massive retaliation”, with potential nuclear strikes against the Soviet Union and China. During Eisenhower’s presidency increased potential of nuclear weapons, has accelerated the development of strategic aviation, was established nuclear submarine fleet.
The relations with the Soviet Union and the socialist countries were based on the principle of “brinkmanship” increased efforts to undermine the socialist system in Central and Eastern Europe (the doctrine of “liberation”). In 1954, with the assistance of the Americans in Guatemala was overthrown government of Jacobo Arbenz. After a heart attack, who moved Eisenhower’s first term in office, has a strong tradition in the media regularly report on the state of health of the president. Despite health problems, again in 1956 Dwight D Eisenhower won the presidential election the Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson, and with even greater margin than in previous elections.
Foreign Policy’s second term was marked by increased pressure on the global processes of the United States. Policy toward the countries of the Middle East has defined “Eisenhower Doctrine” (1957), whose author was John Dulles. In a conflict between Israel and the Arab world Soviet Union provided military and economic support to Arab countries, thus attracting them to their side in the global confrontation between the two super powers. Eisenhower doctrine provided a powerful military and economic assistance to Arab countries, which will adhere to the anti-socialist and pro-Western course. March 9, 1957 the provisions of the doctrine have been approved by the U.S. Congress, which has allocated for its implementation 200 million.
In addition, Congress authorized the president to send armed forces to help the anti-communist governments of Middle Eastern countries. Often interpreted as the Eisenhower Doctrine of providing military and economic aid to any country of the “free world.” The U.S. government has sought to expand its chain of military bases around the world, has initiated a military unit CENTO and SEATO. In 1958, American forces intervened in Lebanon.