William H. Taft
William Taft full name was William Howard Taft born on September 15, 1857, Cincinnati, Ohio. On March 8, 1930 he died in Washington, DC. He was American statesman, 27th U.S. President (1909-1913, Republican Party), the leader of the conservative wing the Republican Party.
William H. Taft was the son of Alphonso Taft (1810-1891) – a prominent American statesman, who served as minister of war and U.S. Attorney General (1876-1877), ambassador to Russia (1884-1885). In 1878, William graduated from Yale College and then law school in Cincinnati (1880), was elected a member of the Supreme Court of Ohio (1887-1890). In the years 1890-1892 he served as General Solicitor U.S. (the highest official of the Ministry of Justice, which represents the interests of the state in a lawsuit), then was appointed a federal district judge in Ohio and a member of the U.S. Court of Appeals (1892-1900).
In September 1900, headed a special committee (“Commission Taft”), he went to the Philippines. The purpose of the Taft Commission was an organization of power in the islands captured by the Americans in the war with Spain. In July 1901 Taft became the first civil governor of the Philippine archipelago. In 1904, Taft became Secretary of War and the closest adviser to President Theodore Roosevelt. In December 1904, the Minister of War has signed a series of agreements with Panama on the status of the Panama Canal. In 1905, William H. Taft signed an agreement on the division of spheres of influence of the U.S. and Japan and the Americans supported the British-Japanese alliance against Russia. As Secretary of War directed the suppression of the national liberation uprising in Cuba (1906). In June 1908 he retired to take up the campaign for the election of the U.S. president. Presidential candidate of the Republican Party, he was nominated on the recommendation of Roosevelt.
On March 4, 1909 to March 4, 1913, William Taft occupied the White House. Guided by the principle: “It is better to put up with injustice than to implement destructive changes,” he been cautious in addressing pressing social problems, turned away from his supporters in the election of progressive Republicans and linked up with the conservative wing of the Republican Party. Instead of the promised tariff reform president supported the adoption of the protective tariff Payne-Aldrich (1909). However, he reorganized the state apparatus in order to increase its effectiveness, held strong anti-trust, the largest of which was the dissolution of the achievement of “Standard Oil” (1911).
The main objective of the foreign policy of William H. Taft considered encouraging foreign trade expansion pursued a policy of “dollar diplomacy” in Latin America and the Far East. He pursued a policy of full convergence with Canada, has taken several steps to improve relations with Russia, in 1911, and authorized the visit of the U.S. Navy in Kronstadt. Taft opposed the dissolution of a trade agreement with Russia, but after the decision of the Congress of denunciation was forced to declare the termination of the contract, to prevent it from breaking in the form of an affront to Russia (1911). In 1912, the Government of Taft intervened in Nicaragua.
By 1912, he finally broke with the progressive wing of the Republican Party, with the support of the conservative “old guard” was re-nominated for president, but in a split camp Republicans lost the presidential election and Democrat Woodrow Wilson, and the Progressive Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt. After retirement Taft taught constitutional law at Yale University, participated in the National Labor war (National War Labor Board, 1918), supported the idea of a League of Nations. In 1921, after returning Republicans to power, took the place of the Supreme Court of the United States, held its reorganization, and was against diplomatic recognition of the USSR. After a heart attack (1930), retired. His opinion has played an important role in the debate on the right of the president to dismiss the federal officials (1926).