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James Monroe

James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758, Westmoreland County, Virginia. He died on July 4, 1831, New York. He was an American politician, fifth president of the United States (1817-1825), Secretary of State (1811-1817). In 1823, he proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine.

The son of a planter, James Monroe went to college of William and Mary, who left in the spring of 1776 to take part in the War of Independence in North America. He was wounded in the Battle of Trenton, went down a major. In the years 1780-1783 he studied law under the direction of then-governor of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson. In the years 1782-1783 – a member of the legislature of Virginia. In 1783-1786 he was a member of Congress, established under the Articles of Confederation. Until 1790 practiced law.

On Ratification of Virginia convention voted against the U.S. Constitution because of its lack of a Bill of Rights. In the years 1790-1794 – the senator from Virginia, one of the leaders of the Jeffersonian Republicans, was actively involved in the creation of the Democratic-Republican Party. Despite harsh criticism of President George Washington, in 1794, was appointed ambassador to France, but in 1796 was removed from the post for being introduced to the French confusion about U.S. policy and overt action against the contract Jay. In the years 1799-1802 – the governor of Virginia helped elect President Thomas Jefferson, who in late 1802 sent him to Paris to help the American Minister RR Livingston to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans from France, and in Spain – West Florida.

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U.S. diplomats, acting on their own, signed April 30, 1803 an agreement to acquire not only New Orleans, but the whole of Louisiana, which has increased almost twice the territory of the then United States. In the years 1803-1807 – U.S. envoy in Britain, in the years 1804-1805 with the U.S. ambassador to Spain, Charles Pinckney tried unsuccessfully to resolve the question of the borders between the United States and Florida. In January 1811 was re-elected governor of Virginia, but in March, President George Madison appointed him secretary of state. During this period, the intensification of conflict with Great Britain, which led to the war in 1812-1814? During the raid the British on Washington in August 1814, James Monroe evacuate State Department archives, preserving for posterity the original Declaration of Independence and many other documents. Since September 1814 he also served as Secretary of War (1814-1815). Monroe activity contributed to the favorable outcome of the U.S. war with Britain ended Ghent treaty of 1814.

James Monroe, who was considered the successor to J. Madison, won a landslide victory in the presidential elections of 1816 and 1820′s. His stay at the White House on March 4 1817 to March 3, 1825 went down in history as the United States “the era of good agreement.” It was a rare period of calm to the country inter-party struggle, confidence and stability, thanks in no small measure contributed to the undisputed tenure leading cabinet members. A strong opponent of the federal government at the beginning of his political career, as president of the James Monroe distinguished himself as a moderate and cautious statesman. Missouri compromise (1820) delayed by several decades the question of slavery, though Monroe had expected to veto it because of inconsistency with the spirit and letter of the U.S. Constitution. During his presidency, the United States emerged victorious in the Seminole War (1817-1818), acquired Florida (1819-1821), and decided to border issues with the Spanish possessions. Relations with Great Britain were settled by signing an agreement on the demilitarization of the Great Lakes (1817) and those of 1818, which established the border with Canada in the area of ​​Lake Forest to the Rocky Mountains. Convention in 1824 defined the boundaries of Russian America and eliminated the stage for conflict between the U.S. and Russia. The President, with the support of Congress called for the recognition of the independence of Latin American Republics (1822).

The president was closely linked to the Monroe Doctrine – the foreign policy concept, it’s stated in a message to Congress December 2, 1823. The essence of the doctrine, the actual author was Secretary of State George C. Adams, was the principle of mutual non-interference of the American and European continents in the internal affairs of each other (“America for the Americans”). At the same time the development of the United States associated with the accession of new land, which is widely used to justify territorial expansion. Entering the diplomatic lexicon in the 1850s, the Monroe Doctrine was the basis of U.S. foreign policy was modified and gradually acquired a broader interpretation. The fact that international recognition was contained in the Treaty of Versailles (1919).

After leaving the White House, James Monroe retired to his estate in Oak Hill, designed by Thomas Jefferson. In 1826 he joined the board of the University of Virginia, and in 1829 was president of the convention, which adopted a new constitution of Virginia. In 1830, after his wife moved to the Monroe home of his youngest daughter in New York. Initiated by him in the years unfinished memoir. President died of heart failure in the U.S. Independence Day. He was buried in New York, and in 1858 was reburied at the cemetery at Richmond.