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Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson full name was Thomas Woodrow Wilson born on December 28, 1856, Stanton, Virginia. He died on February 3, 1924, Washington, DC. He was American statesman, 28th President of the United States (1913-1921, of the Democratic Party. His name is associated with a number of liberal laws. Even before the U.S. entry into World War I (April 1917) put forward the idea of ​​a post-war union of states, which was embodied in the League of Nations. The Nobel Peace Prize (1919).

Woodrow Wilson‘s ancestors came from Scotland and Ireland, his father was a Presbyterian pastor. In the early 1880s, Wilson refused to use the name of Thomas. In 1879, he graduated from Princeton University, and then studied law at the University of Virginia. In 1882-1883 practiced law in Atlanta (GA). Since 1883 he has visited historical seminar Herbert B. Adams at Johns Hopkins University in 1886 and received his doctorate in law for the book “The Board of the Congress” (1885). In (1885-1888) the teacher of history in the women’s college Bryn Mawr (PA), in (1889-1890) in the Wesleyan (Methodist) University (Connecticut). Since 1890 professor of law and economics at Princeton University and in 1902-1910 – the school’s president. Author of a dozen major works on political history and government dollars. As rector of Princeton University has taken a number of attempts to democratize the university, which was resisted professors of traditional aristocratic institution.

With the support of the Progressives Woodrow Wilson was elected governor of New Jersey (1911-1912) and implemented a program of democratic reform (introduction of direct primaries, the law on the fight against corruption, a commission for the control of public companies). His success as governor attracted national attention in 1912, and Wilson was nominated by the Democratic Party presidential candidate. Under the slogan “new freedom”, he won the election over Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft.

Woodrow Wilson took the White House, believing that the U.S. entered the most important since the Civil War period of development. He was convinced that the story – it’s “the era of reform, not revolution.” In its policy, the new president of the principle: “the state exists for the society, not society to the state.” Therefore, he argued for the maximum equality of opportunity for all citizens in the country and for the unlimited access of U.S. businesses to global markets. As part of the construction of a “new democracy” Wilson passed a law about tax cuts (1913), the creation of the Federal Reserve System (1913), the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914), the law of the Adamson eight-hour day on the railway (1916), the law Siemens on the regulation of maritime employment and other social laws for the benefit of farmers and wage-earners. The President established the FTC (Federal Trade Commission), will strengthen the ability of trade unions.

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Woodrow Wilson pursued an active foreign policy aimed at strengthening the U.S. position in the Far East, Latin America, evolved into the British-American rapprochement. Under the slogan “get” American troops invaded Mexico (1914 and 1916-1917), occupied Haiti (1915), and the Dominican Republic (1916). The President supported the creation of self-government in the Philippines. At the beginning of World War Wilson remains neutral, pacifist position of trying to mediate between the European powers. After the death of “Lusitania” (1915) and other unarmed ships, he obtained the promise from Germany to stop submarine warfare.

In 1916, Woodrow Wilson was re-nominated by the Democratic Party for a second term. Under the slogan “He kept us from war” by a slim margin, he was able to defeat the Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes. By 1917 Wilson revised his pacifist views and bowed to the need to enter the First World War, believing that this step will allow the United States to play a more active role in the postwar reconstruction of the world. The reason for going to war was the new German submarine attacks on passenger ships. April 6, 1917 has been declared war on Germany.

After the February Revolution in Russia, the U.S. president sought to cooperate with the interim government, the Union had the idea of ​​”two of the largest democracies in the world.” He sent a special mission to Russia, tried to keep her from going out of the war. After the October Revolution, Woodrow Wilson came up with the plan of universal peace (“Fourteen Points”, January 1918), considering it as an alternative to anti-war Bolshevik agitation. Wilson’s government supported the Whites, in 1918, American troops landed on the north and the Far East of Russia.

Woodrow Wilson personally headed the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, was one of the authors of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), which provided for the creation of the League of Nations, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1920). But Republicans, who controlled the majority of seats in the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, were against his point of U.S. entry into the League of Nations. Trying to win public support, Woodrow Wilson went on a trip to the country, during which he deteriorated health. In September 1919 the President returned to Washington, where there was a brain hemorrhage. Wilson’s paralyzed, he stopped active state activity. Before the expiration of his term the most important political decisions on the merits took his wife – Edith Wilson. She controlled access to patient Wilson, took a number of ill-advised decisions, particularly fabricated data on the health of the president. Wilson rejected any attempt to compromise solution on the League of Nations than to make even his supporters in the Senate to vote against the Treaty of Versailles, the ratification of which was defeated in 1920.