Harry S. Truman
Harry Truman full name is Harry S. Truman, born on May 8, 1884, Lamar, Missouri. And he died on December 26, 1972, the Kansas-City, Missouri. He was an American politician, 33rd President of the United States (1945-1953, from Democratic Party. His name is connected as an extension of the social and economic reforms in the spirit of the “New Deal” of Franklin Roosevelt, and the beginning of the “cold war.” Truman advocated strong opposition forces of the USSR and communism (the policy of “containment” and approval of the sole U.S. leadership around the world. He ordered the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was one of the founders of NATO.
Harry S. Truman was born in a farmer’s family, for many years, his life was connected with his native Kansas. He worked on the family farm, was a bank clerk, postmaster, road inspector, served in the U.S. National Guard, with the rank of captain in the First World War, and was marked by military awards. After the war, became a co-owner of the store in Kansas City, but he soon broke. Aware of his involvement in the Masonic Lodge.
Harry S. Truman began his political career due to Thomas Pendergast, the head of the party machine Democrats in Missouri, a skilled organizer, but to use the infamous corrupt politician. Based on its support, as well as the reputation of a war veteran, Truman in 1922 was elected judge of Jackson County, although legal education was only four years later. In 1926, he became chairman of the district court and in this position the reputation of an honest and fair person. After working for the chairman of the District Court for two terms, in 1934, again with the support of Pendergast, Harry S. Truman was elected to the U.S. Senate. As the newly-senator was himself elected a corrupt party boss in Washington, he met with a preconceived attitude, but was able to quickly change its reputation for good faith with respect to the duties and establish friendly relations with colleagues. With the active participation of the Truman adopted two important laws – the Civil Aviation and Transport.
In 1939, Pendergast was convicted on charges of bribery and tax evasion. Truman had to face many difficulties for re-election to the Senate in 1940. He defeated his opponent with a minimum margin. His victory again provided support for the local party machine led by R. Hannigan, who replaced Pendergast was in prison.
In 1941, he headed the Harry S. Truman Senate committee to investigate abuses in the defense industry has revealed numerous cases of fraud in the performance of the armed forces and war production, which contributed to the rising popularity of the senator from Missouri. In early 1944, Hannigan became chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and it played a significant role in the career of Truman. At a meeting in that year’s presidential election, he was nominated for vice-president. He had to go to the polls in a pair with President Franklin Roosevelt, is running (for the first time in U.S. history) has a fourth term. Truman was nominated instead of former Vice President Henry Wallace, who was widely believed in the leadership of the Democrats too liberal. Elections in 1944 resulted in a convincing victory of Roosevelt and Truman. Truman’s role was all the greater that the President was already seriously ill. However, for 82 days for his vice presidency Truman and Roosevelt met only twice, to address the serious issues it is not attracted.
After the death of Roosevelt, April 12, 1945 Harry S. Truman, according to the constitution, took over as president. He continued the policy of early and final defeat of Nazi Germany and militarist Japan, energetically overcome obstacles to convene in San Francisco conference on the establishment of the United Nations. In July 1945, Truman attended the Potsdam Conference.
Almost from the first days in power, the new president began a review of one of the fundamental elements of the foreign policy of its predecessor – the friendly cooperation with the Soviet Union, trying to solve problems of the postwar Europe without taking into account its interests from a position of strength. Gradually left the presidential office colleagues Roosevelt (Harry Hopkins, Henry Wallace). Despite the coming hostilities against Japan, the U.S. in May 1945, stopped deliveries of lend-lease to the USSR. Especially felt confident Harry S. Truman after the successful test of the atomic bomb. In August 1945, he made the decision to use nuclear weapons against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in more than 200,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed and mutilated. In justification of the atomic bombing of Truman led to the argument that the invasion of the U.S. Army in Japan would cost half a million lives of American soldiers.
Selecting a policy of “containment” toward the Soviet Union, the Harry S. Truman administration made extensive use of both economic and military and political leverage. March 12, 1947 the President asked Congress with a message outlining the foreign policy agenda of the U.S. government in relation to countries where there is a threat to the Communist takeover. This program was called “Truman Doctrine.” Program with an allocation in 1947-1948 fiscal year of $ 400 million to help Greece and Turkey, was adopted by Congress in the form of law and approved by the President in May 1947. Relevant agreements with Greece and Turkey were signed on 20 June and 12 July 1947. Waging a cold war with the Soviet Union, the United States sought to take under the protectorate of the countries to which Britain is no longer going to help, prevent the expansion of the sphere of influence of the USSR. U.S. aid has played a crucial role in the defeat of the Communists in the civil war in Greece. The Truman Doctrine was designed to limit the efforts of post-World War II growth of the forces of socialism, justified the policy of U.S. intervention in any region, where a revolutionary movement and a threat to American interests.
According to Marshall (Secretary of State in the Truman administration), the countries of Western Europe in the years 1948-1951, assistance was provided in excess of $ 13 billion, which contributed to the recovery of the economy and the welfare of the population. By 1951, the industrial production in Western Europe is 43% higher than before the war. The implementation of the Marshall Plan has strengthened the position of American capital in Europe (U.S. private investment has increased by four times), has provided U.S. companies large markets.
According to the adopted in 1947 and the 1949 National Security Act of creation of a single Department of Defense, the Ministry of combined three branches of the armed forces (Army, Navy and Air Force), formed by the National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). July 26, 1948 the President issued a decree banning segregation in the armed forces. In 1948-1949, Harry S. Truman went decidedly strained relations with the Soviet Union on the question of West Berlin, organized a breakthrough Berlin blockade by Air Bridge. In April 1949, Washington signed an agreement to create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In the last years of the Truman United States actively participated in the Korean War (1950-1953). American troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur acted on the side of South Korea under the banner of the UN forces (includes small contingents another 16 countries). In this war on the side of North Korea made Communist China. MacArthur suggested the president is not only fighting to move to China, but also to use nuclear weapons. But Harry S. Truman rejected these proposals and changed the commander in Korea.
Domestic President was aimed at mitigating the socio-economic and racial conflicts in American society. In September 1945, he invited the Congress to adopt a program of social reform “Fair Deal”, which was conceived as a continuation of the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt. In particular fair course provides a number of measures to increase wages, social security, elimination of discrimination based on racial or religious grounds in hiring, an increase in housing construction. However, these measures (the so-called “Economic Bill of Rights” were rejected by Congress as too expensive. The exception was the Employment Act (1946), holds the Government responsible for ensuring full employment.
Harry S. Truman‘s initiative in the field of social policy and civil rights secured him victory in the next presidential election (1948) over Republican Thomas Dewey, despite the split of the Democratic Party. Part of the Democrats supported the newly formed Progressive Party Wallace, advocated a return to Roosevelt’s foreign policy, the other part, especially in the U.S. South – South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond, opponents of President in matters of race relations.
In 1949, Harry S. Truman asked Congress again with a program of social reform of the course of the Fair, but again without success. Lawmakers approved a rise in the minimum wage, increased the number of people receiving social benefits for old age, and adopted a program of low-cost housing for the poor. Truman remained unfulfilled the proposed measures to create a national health insurance system, to ensure civil rights. His social policy, however, laid the foundation for the social programs of Democratic administrations of the 1960s: John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.
In general, the Harry S. Truman administration has paid more attention to foreign policy, the confrontation with the Soviet Union. Hence the distrust of its trade unions, leftist organizations in the U.S., which were seen as natural, allies of the USSR. And though the president sincerely sought to overcome racial and social conflicts, he is responsible for the rampant McCarthyism, which began precisely in the years of his governance.
By the beginning of the 1950s, Truman had lost the confidence of the voters. Domestic achievements were modest; the administration was shaken by numerous scandals involving corruption in the entourage of the president. The unpopularity of the Korean War played a role in the decision Truman did not stand as a candidate in the next presidential election (1952). Although during his time in office was often criticized, and later policy Harry S. Truman’s presidency was recognized fairly reasonable and balanced. In memory of his countrymen-president in the Day of Missouri Truman.