Franklin D Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt full name is Franklin Delano Roosevelt born on January 30, 1882, Hyde Park, New York. And he died on April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Georgia. ) is an American politician, the 32nd President of the United States (from 1933, Democratic Party), was elected four times to the presidency, made reforms of the New Deal. With the beginning of World War II has supported the UK and France (June 1941 – and the USSR) in the fight against Nazi Germany, has made a significant contribution to the anti-Hitler coalition. Roosevelt gave great importance to the establishment of the UN and the postwar international cooperation, including between the U.S. and USSR.
Franklin D Roosevelt was born into a wealthy and respectable family of James Roosevelt, a descendant of Dutch immigrants who settled in New York. His distant cousin was Theodore Roosevelt – 26th President of the United States. Roosevelt had extensive political connections north-eastern states. Franklin’s father owned a taluk Hyde Park on the Hudson River, and large stakes in a number of coal and transportation companies. Mother, Sara Delano, also belonged to the upper stratum of New York society. As a child, Roosevelt traveled every summer with my parents to Europe, where well mastered foreign languages, or vacationing on the coast of New England, on the Canadian island of Campobello (near East Port, Maine), which became interested in sailing.
14 years, Franklin is home schooled. In the 1896-1899 years. He studied at the prestigious school in Groton (Mass.), and then in 1900-1904. At Harvard University, where he received a bachelor’s degree, and at Columbia University Law School (1905-1907). Obtaining the right to practice law, Franklin D Roosevelt began work at a big law firm on Wall Street. In 1905 he married his cousin in the fifth generation Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962). Her father was the younger brother of President Theodore Roosevelt, whom Franklin always admired. Roosevelt, the couple had six children, one of whom died in infancy.
Roosevelt began his political career in the ranks of the Democratic Party. In 1910 he was elected to the Senate of the State of New York. One of his first steps was the independent political action against the dominance of the local Democratic Party machine known as Tammany Hall (Tammany Hall). In the presidential campaign of 1912, he actively supported the Democrat Woodrow Wilson. As president, Roosevelt, Wilson appointed Deputy Secretary of the Navy (1913-1921). In this post, Roosevelt advocated the strengthening of the fleet, strengthening of defense the United States, strong presidency and active foreign policy.
In 1914, he attempted to get a place, U.S. Senator, and failed. By the end of Wilson’s stay in office, Roosevelt became one of the leading young Democratic politicians; in 1920 he was nominated for vice-president of the United States in conjunction with presidential candidate John Cox. Democrats went to the polls under the banner of the U.S. entry into the League of Nations, a more active part in international affairs. However, the Americans were gaining strength isolationism, and victory in the presidential election Republicans won.
After the electoral defeat of Roosevelt returned to private law practice and business. However, he soon fell ill with polio, with paralysis of the legs in August 1921 to the end of life confined him to a wheelchair – Roosevelt almost could not move freely. However, with the help of his wife, he found the strength to return to active politics. Despite his illness, Franklin D Roosevelt continued to play an increasingly prominent role in the leadership of the Democratic Party. In 1928, Franklin Roosevelt was elected governor of New York, and remained in that position for two terms (up to 1932), gaining valuable administrative experience. In 1931, at the height of the Great Depression, he created in the state administration to assist the families of the unemployed, established the first U.S. state fund unemployment benefits, tax cuts to the farmers. Against the background of conservative politics GOP governor, Democrat of New York, conducting socio-economic transformation, is gaining popularity nationwide. The tradition of communicating with voters through radio (“fireside talks”) also goes back to the days of Roosevelt’s governorship. In these years, the closest associate of Franklin D Roosevelt was James Farley (1888-1976), head of the Committee of the Democratic Party of New York State, and then the whole country. Farley organized the election of Roosevelt in the years 1928-1936.
In the 1932 presidential campaign, Roosevelt was the undisputed leader of the Republicans, and scored an impressive victory over President Herbert Hoover, who had fallen on the political responsibility for the economic crisis (1929-1933). During the election campaign, Franklin D Roosevelt presented the basic ideas of social and economic reforms, which became known as the New Deal. Concrete action plan to bring the country to the economic crisis has been developed with the assistance of his Roosevelt advisers (“brain trust”) from the date of election until the day of his inauguration.
In March 1933, Roosevelt took office as president. Before him was the most difficult task of revival of the economy, with thirteen million unemployed. In his inaugural address, Roosevelt said “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself» (the only thing we have to fear is fear itself). First hundred days in office, he pushed through Congress the main legislative acts of the New Deal, have taken strong anti-crisis measures, in particular the creation of numerous public institutions on economic management – the so-called “alphabet agency» (alphabet agencies). New Deal marked the introduction of state regulation of the U.S. economy.
One of the first steps was taken to restore the health of the banking system. In May 1933 the President signed into law the creation of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration hungry and unemployed. In order to help farmers, the Law on refinancing of farm debts and Recovery Act of agriculture, this establishes the principle of state control over the volume of agricultural production. Franklin D Roosevelt gave special importance to the law on the restoration industry, which provided a range of government measures to regulate the industry.
In 1935 he carried out important reforms in the area of labor relations (the Wagner Act), social security, taxation, and banking. All these measures helped to fundamentally change the social and political atmosphere in the country, gave a dynamic impetus to remedy the situation in the economy. Impressive victory in the next presidential election (in 1936, his opponent was Alf Landon) allowed Roosevelt in 1937-1938. Implement a number of measures in the field of civil engineering, wage and labor laws. Passed by the Congress by the President of the New Deal legislation was introduced the practice of state regulation of the economy, redistributing social wealth to alleviate social contradictions. To resolve the legal issues in the New Deal president proposed to expand the powers of the Supreme Court (Supreme Court), but his draft judicial reform – (court-packing) met with strong opposition and was not implemented. In the late 1930′s. U.S. economic growth rates have slowed down, but by the time Franklin D Roosevelt became increasingly worrying threat of war.
Before the war the president tried to pursue a flexible and realistic foreign policy. One of his first foreign policy initiatives was the diplomatic recognition of the USSR (14 November 1933). In its relations with Latin America was proclaimed a policy of “good neighbor”, promoting an inter-American system of collective security. However, the President was forced to reckon with the strong isolationist sentiment in the U.S. and would not be bound by the obligations at the international level in the reconstruction of the economy. These factors contributed to the maintenance of solid U.S. neutrality in international affairs. Congress decided on the arms embargo from the United States to countries where armed conflicts broke out, ignoring the distinction between aggressor and victim. As a result of non-interference policy in the Abyssinian War (1935) and the Spanish Civil War legitimate governments of these countries were unable to buy American weapons and ammunition in the fight against the aggressor powers – Italy and Germany. Only in November 1939, when it was raging World War II, Roosevelt made to lift the embargo on arms sales and a policy of assistance to victims of aggression.
Presidential campaign in 1940 took place against the background of success of Hitler’s Germany, which were perceived as a threat to American democracy. Franklin D Roosevelt called for resistance against the Nazis and confidently won the presidential election the third time (his opponent was Wendell Willkie). In the U.S., not accepted, that a president occupied the White House for more than two consecutive terms, but in 1940 was an exception – the big risk is a change of government in World War II. President of the UK increased aid, which, after the fall of France alone continued resistance to the aggressors. UK financial resources were exhausted by 1941, to pay for the supply of arms and ammunition from the United States was nothing. In these circumstances, Franklin D Roosevelt initiated a law the Lend-Lease Act (March 1941), which gave an opportunity for countries struggling with the aggressor receive U.S. aid under the interest-free loan to the condition of its recovery after the war. Following the June 1941 law the Lend-Lease Act was extended to the Soviet Union, which has been granted an interest-free loan of $ 1 billion. In 1941, Roosevelt and British leader Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter, which proclaimed democratic goals and principles of the anti-Hitler coalition postwar settlement.
A strong stand on the side of Great Britain and the Soviet Union in the war with Germany, Franklin D Roosevelt wanted, as long as possible to restrict the supply of arms, and to avoid large-scale U.S. involvement in World War II. In this case, under the slogan of “active defense” in the fall 1941 in the Atlantic was “undeclared war” with Germany. American warships were allowed to conduct aimed fire on the German and Italian ships coming into the territorial waters of the United States. Congress repealed the articles neutrality laws prohibiting armed merchant ships and vessels in the U.S. visit the combat zone.
Fireplace World War raged and the Pacific, where Japan, using the weakening of Britain and France, vigorously engaged in territorial conquest. U.S. remained the only obstacle in the way of the Japanese to dominate the Pacific. Franklin D Roosevelt hoped to delay the inevitability of war with Japan through negotiations, and seemed to have succeeded in the last months of 1941. The more unexpected was the attack Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft on the U.S. air base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The next day, the U.S. and Great Britain declared war on Japan, and on December 11 the U.S. war was declared Germany and Italy. Franklin D Roosevelt, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of chief of the armed forces. He made great efforts to mobilize U.S. industry to fulfill military contracts, strengthen the coalition, which became the basis for the creation of the United Nations.
January 1, 1942 in Washington, DC to sign the Declaration of the United Nations, apply the anti-Hitler alliance in the international legal order. Like Churchill, Roosevelt took the fence on the issue of opening a second front in Europe. Impressive victories of the Red Army at Stalingrad and Kursk had convinced him that the Soviet Union will make a decisive contribution to the defeat of the powers of the “axis” in Europe, will take the position of a leading power in the postwar world, that the more active cooperation with the Soviet leadership. At the Tehran Conference “Big Three” (1943) did not support the Churchill Franklin D Roosevelt, avoids dealing with specific questions about opening a second front.
Special attention is paid to the problem Roosevelt postwar settlement. At the Quebec Conference (1943), he presented his project to create a global international organization. In the opinion of Roosevelt responsibility for peace must bear the great powers – the U.S., UK, USSR and China (“four policemen”). Discussion of this subject has been continued at the Moscow Conference, the Tehran Conference and the conference at Dumbarton Oaks (1944).
In 1944, Franklin D Roosevelt was the fourth time, was elected U.S. president, winning the election of Thomas Dewey. By the time his health deteriorated considerably. However, he attended the Yalta Conference (1945), where he held a realistic position, take into account the existing military-strategic and political situation, sought to negotiate the entry of the USSR into the war with Japan, hoping for a continuation of the post-war US-Soviet cooperation.
On his return from Yalta Franklin D Roosevelt, continued to engage in public affairs, preparing for the opening of the April 23 conference of the United Nations in San Francisco. However, on 12 April, the President died of a brain hemorrhage. He was buried in his home estate of Hyde Park. Franklin Roosevelt recognized as one of the greatest American presidents, along with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.