James K. Polk
James K. Polk full name was James Knox Polk born on November 2, 1795, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. He died on June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tennessee. He was an American politician, the eleventh president of the United States (1845-1849, the Democratic Party). Government Polk led the US-Mexican War (1846-1848), capturing more than half of Mexico’s territory.
James K. Polk was a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson in 1825, which helped him win the election to the House of Representatives. In 1839, the regiment left Congress to become governor of Tennessee (1839-1841). In 1844, at the Democratic National Convention, he became a candidate for the presidency as a result of a compromise between the warring factions, and therefore considered the first “dark horse” among the presidential candidates.
Supporter of the expansionist policy, Polk, during the election of openly about the need to join Texas, and claimed the whole of Oregon, extending to 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, proclaiming: “Fifty-four – forty or war.” At age 49 he became the youngest at the time the U.S. president. James K. Polk started annexation of Texas (1845), has successfully settled a dispute with the United Kingdom on the border of Oregon (1846), ensure that the tariff law Walker (Walker Tariff Act, 1846), which reduced import duties and contributed to the development of foreign trade.
In December 1845, at the first annual message to Congress president proposed doctrine Shelf (Polk Doctrine), which developed the idea of the Monroe Doctrine of the exclusive right of the Western Hemisphere to decide their own destiny, not to intervene in the affairs of European countries possible future union of Latin American countries to the U.S.. During the Mexican War (1846-1848) were captured vast territories, but intensified the debate about the boundaries of spread of slavery.
Since 1846, Americans have started to invade Colombia, trying to control the route of the Panama Canal. James K. Polk administration established the Ministry of the Interior, established the Naval Academy, the U.S., and the Smithsonian Institution, and has reviewed the treasury system. James K. Polk showed himself lucky and competent president, skillfully worked with the Congress. However, health problems did not allow him to fight for re-election. He died three months after leaving the presidency.