John Kennedy full name is John Fitzgerald Kennedy, JFK born on May 29, 1917, Brooklyn, MA. He died on November 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas. He is an American politician, the 35th U.S. president (1961-1963, of the Democratic Party). The youngest American president, he was the only one in the history of U.S. President-Catholic. As President Kennedy put forward a program of social and economic reforms. Speaking for the strengthening of the anti-Soviet military units and U.S. armed forces, he was able to overcome the inertia of the policy of “cold war” and won easing international tensions, conducting a more realistic course in relations with the USSR.
John F. Kennedy belonged to a wealthy and influential Boston Catholic Kennedy family – descendants of immigrants from Ireland. His father, Joseph Patrick Kennedy, a prominent banker and businessman, before World War II was the U.S. ambassador to Great Britain (1937-1940). His middle name is John Fitzgerald was named after his grandfather on the maternal side – the mayor of Boston. He studied in the preferred private schools, and in 1935 enrolled at the London School of Economics, but interrupted his studies due to illness. He graduated from Harvard University (1936-1940). During World War II, John F. Kennedy was an officer in the Navy and fought in the Pacific, commanded a torpedo boat. In 1943 took part in military raids in the Solomons, in one of the attacks on the Japanese destroyer was seriously wounded, and was awarded the medal Purple Heart, Medal Navy and Marine Corps (Navy and Marine Corps Medal).
Discharged in 1945, John began working as a journalist, and in 1946 decided to try his hand in politics and announced his candidacy for the U.S. House of Representatives from the Democratic Party. He was a member of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts three consecutive terms (1947-1953), worked in the Committee on Labor and Education. In November 1952 John F. Kennedy successfully ran for the U.S. Senate and sat there until 1960. During this period, showed his political views, which can be characterized as liberal, especially in the areas of civil rights and freedoms, while Kennedy was accused of conniving McCarthyism. In the Senate, he was a member of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, supported the adoption of laws on social security.
In 1953, John married the daughter of a New York banker Jacqueline Bouvier. The couple had a daughter and a son. In 1954 and 1955. Senator underwent two complex spinal surgeries, and during the long treatment wrote the book “Profiles in Courage” about the life of eight U.S. Senators (1956), for which he received the Pulitzer Prize. Since 1957, John F. Kennedy was a member of the influential Foreign Affairs Committee. His views on foreign policy in that period of originality – he was a supporter of the Cold War against the Soviet Union.
In 1960, Kennedy decided to run for the U.S. presidency. Influential leader of the Democratic Party of Lyndon Johnson, has agreed to run for Vice President in the same list with Kennedy. After winning the presidential election of Richard Nixon – GOP nominee – John F. Kennedy 20 January 1961 took over as president. His victory greatly contributed to the strong financial support of family, skillful organization of the election campaign, which was led by the younger brother, Robert Kennedy. John gave a special charm of its refined beautiful wife. Played a role, and personal qualities of the candidate for the presidency, his image as a vibrant, charismatic politician younger generation, who told Americans about the U.S. intention to withdraw to the “new frontiers.” John F. Kennedy showed his brilliant orator. In his inaugural address, he called for the “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country”. Kennedy’s election program of the planned number of socio-economic reform – reducing taxes, including a significant reduction in the income tax, the adoption of legislative measures to ensure the civil rights of people of color, health insurance, retirement, increasing the minimum wage, control monopolies. Great attention was paid to accelerate economic development. In Congress, the legislative proposals of the new president met with a cool reception, especially in the field of taxation and civil rights. John F. Kennedy overcame these obstacles with his characteristic energy and vigor.
Apart from the purely propaganda effect of the program “New Frontier” reflect the need to adapt the understanding of domestic and foreign policy of the USA to the changing balance of forces in the international arena. Diplomacy “New Frontier” was to update and expand the range of both peaceful and military methods of protection of U.S. interests in the global confrontation with the Soviet Union. Instead of the old doctrines of “rolling back communism” and “massive retaliation” John F. Kennedy administration proclaimed the doctrine of “flexible response”. Along with the willingness to launch a global nuclear war the U.S. government allowed for the possibility of U.S. troops in the “local” and “anti-guerrilla warfare.”
Called for strong anti-Soviet military units and increase U.S. military power, Kennedy, however, understood the importance of economic and ideological methods of struggle for the strengthening of the U.S. and its allies in the global confrontation with the socialist camp. Special attention was paid to the “third world.” John F. Kennedy urged Americans to break the stereotype of the world, supposedly profit from the suffering of the poor.
To this end, in March 1961 was created “Peace Corps”, which included American volunteers provide free assistance and specific populations of the developing countries. After the failure of the CIA under President Eisenhower’s invasion of counterrevolutionary forces in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs (April 1961) was created by the program of socio-economic development of Latin America, “Alliance for Progress”. Trying to prevent the Communist takeover of South Vietnam, Kennedy sent to the country of military advisers and arms began to local puppet government. Thus, he began the first phase of the Vietnam War. Soviet achievements in space exploration of concern to the American public – not far behind the U.S. in the space race? In 1961, John F. Kennedy adopted a new program of space research “Apollo” and promised that the Americans landed on the moon by the end of the decade. In politics Kennedy relied mainly on a narrow range of energetic advisers – his “brain trust.” Secure his assistants had younger brothers – Attorney General Robert Kennedy and Senator Edward Kennedy. In the future they could replace John as president.
Berlin crisis (August 1961) and the Missile Crisis (October 1962) became an ordeal for John F. Kennedy, as a person and a leader of a major power. When U.S. intelligence discovered in Cuba Soviet strategic missiles, the U.S. president ordered the U.S. Navy to blockade the island and demanded that the Soviet Union to remove its missiles from Cuban territory. Teetering on the brink of World War II, Kennedy has shown a high sense of responsibility, able to objectively assess the situation and keep the world from disaster, by agreeing to an acceptable compromise with the Soviet leadership. In the spring of 1963, U.S. President started talking about the benefits of peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union.
In a speech on June 10, 1963, he specifically called for the search for solutions to international disputes through negotiations, for a more realistic approach to relations with the USSR. An important step in easing international tensions signing (August 1963), the U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (Moscow Treaty), to initiate the process of deterrence nuclear arms race. In October of the same year the Treaty of Moscow, was supplemented by an agreement not to launch into orbit of the Earth of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, which caused dissatisfaction and criticism of John F. Kennedy supporters of the “cold war.”
The greatest achievement of Kennedy in international trade was the beginning of the next round of talks between the U.S. and European countries on the mutual reduction of tariffs under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This became possible after the president received the consent of Congress to reduce U.S. tariffs subject to the consent of other developed countries on the same step. Despite the fact that the actual negotiations took place after the death of the President of the United States, 1964-1967, they got in the literature as the “Kennedy Round” and ended commitment to reduce tariffs by 1971 on average by 35 percent.
In the second half of 1963 worsened the political situation in the U.S., frequent interracial conflicts. President-liberal annoyed many conservative Americans. Meanwhile, the year was approaching the next presidential election. In this situation, John F. Kennedy decided to make a trip to the U.S. South.
November 22, 1963 during the passage of the presidential motorcade through Dallas, 35th President of the United States was hit by several sniper shots to the head and died half an hour later, without regaining consciousness. Special Warren Commission, established to investigate the assassination, concluded that the president fired lone assassin Lee Harvey Oswald. The findings, repeatedly subjected to valid criticism, but to prove the correctness of that version of the Kennedy assassination no one has. Oswald himself was soon killed, died under mysterious circumstances, many participants of independent investigations, and most Americans think the assassination of President Kennedy’s secret undisclosed.
John F. Kennedy became the successor Lyndon Johnson, who continues the program started late president. John F. Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery near Washington. The tragic death of the president promoted his idealization of the image, later known many of the details of his personal life, particularly numerous extramarital affairs that several posthumous image tarnished knight without fear and without reproach.
In honor of John F. Kennedy was renamed Cape Canaveral, Florida, where the launch site spacecraft, Idle wild International Airport in the southern part of the New York borough of Queens, called the toll roads of Maryland, Delaware, Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, spaceport in Florida, striking an aircraft carrier U.S. Navy. House in the Boston suburb of Brooklyn, where the president was born, is a national museum. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library in Boston, part of the exhibition is devoted to her Robert Kennedy. In Dallas, at the intersection of Houston Street and Elm Street, the place of death of the president, the penalty raises memorial steel.