Ulysses S Grant
Ulysses S. Grant full name was Ulysses Simpson Grant. He was born on April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, Ohio. And he died on July 23, 1885, in Mount McGregor, New York. He was American statesman and military leader, the eighteenth president of the United States (1869-1877), during the Civil War (1861-1865) Chief of the Army of the North.
The son of a tanner, Ulysses from his childhood passion for horses. In 1839, at the urging of his father the young man does not tolerate the sight of blood, hunting and swearing, went to West Point and graduated in 1843 and began service in the cavalry, with the rank of second lieutenant. From the beginning, Grant, by his own admission, did not find “no charm in the military service.” Under the command of Zachary Taylor, he participated in the US-Mexican War (1846-1848) and considered it “immoral” and the U.S. recognized the aggressor. After the end of the Mexican War he served in the states of New York and Michigan, in Oregon. In 1852 he was assigned to California. By the time he became a captain in command of a company. Disappointment in life, frequent separation from his wife and children contributed to his addiction to alcohol. Unsuccessful commercial operation, which resulted in wasted salary grant his soldiers, led to his resignation. In 1854, Ulysses S. Grant moved under St. Louis, without much success a farmer and real estate transactions. In 1860 he moved to the city of Galina (Illinois) and worked in the shop of his father.
With the start of the American Civil War (1861-1865) Ulysses S. Grant, as an experienced soldier, led the 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment in August 1861 and was promoted to Brigadier General Union Army. In January 1862 he won the approval of its plan of offensive operations in the western theater. Carrying out the plan in February 1862 captured strategically important forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee, capturing 15 thousand enemy soldiers. It was one of the first successes of the Union army, for which the winner was promoted to major general. In the battle of Shiloh he withstood all the attacks of the South, though, and received accusations of large losses. Reputation militant commander and experienced strategist strengthened after successful surgery on mastering Vicksburg in Mississippi (April-July 1863).
The fall of Vicksburg, led to the capture of 20 thousand soldiers of the Confederate Army, the western part of the Confederacy had been isolated from the mainland. After winning the battle Chattanooga Ulysses S. Grant became lieutenant general and commander of all the armies of the northerners (March 1864). According to the strategic plan developed by his army of General William Sherman crossed the Appalachian Mountains, invaded Georgia and mastering September 2, 1864 Atlanta, rushed to the Atlantic Ocean. Sam Grant at this time went on the offensive in the north-east. Whacked in intense battles in Virginia, the main forces of the South, he forced them to leave April 2, 1865 the capital of the Confederacy Richmond. April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Ulysses S. Grant accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee defeated army. Grant’s generalship ability and his progressive views on military strategy have made an invaluable contribution to the victory of the North. In July 1866 he was second only to George Washington was promoted to General of the U.S. Army. In August 1867 – January 1868 Grant served as U.S. Secretary of War.
In 1868, was very popular hero of the last war Ulysses S. Grant was nominated by the Republican Party’s candidate for president! He himself in the election campaign was not involved, but the phrase from the letter with the agreement to run – “Let us have peace” – was a win-win for tired slogan of the war the country. 53% of voters, including about 700 thousand blacks voted for the first time, provided the Grant presidency USA. While Ulysses S. Grant was 46 years old, he became the youngest at the time the U.S. president. In 1872 he was elected to a second term. Grant occupied the White House from March 4, 1869 to March 3, 1877, but his work as president was inactive. As a politician, Grant tended to moderates radical Republicans. The achievements of the presidential administration include tax policy and foreign policy, cleverly laid to permanent Secretary of State Hamilton Fish. Reconstruction of the South was of half-hearted and compromise, leading to resentment as conservatives, Southerners and Northerners liberals. The President supported amnesty Confederate leaders and advocates for the civil rights of former slaves.
The residence time of Ulysses S. Grant’s presidency noted corruption cases, although in fairness the president’s little doubt. Bribery Defense Minister William Belknap, scam “Credit Mobilier” (which was involved Vice President Schuyler Colfax), fraud dealers “Whiskey Ring” seriously embarrass the president. Market panic in 1873 triggered a five-year economic depression, rising unemployment.
After leaving the White House, Ulysses S. Grant in the spring of 1877 – the fall of 1879 made travel around the world in Europe, Asia and Africa. He met with Pope Leo XIII, Queen Victoria, and in the course of a two week stay in Russia the Emperor Alexander II. In 1880, at the Republican Convention Grant again announced his candidacy for president, but in the course of persistent struggle was forced to give the future president John Garfield. In 1881 Grant was living in New York; put all your money in a brokerage firm, a partner of which was his second son. However, in 1884, another of the partners fraudulently appropriated the firm itself and the president left without means of subsistence. After the success of the published in the journal Articles Grant of the Civil War, he received an offer to write a memoir, the fee for which was to provide for his family. While working on the memoirs, Ulysses S. Grant struggled with serious illness – cancer of the throat, which caused his death a few days after the completion of his memoirs. Publication of memoirs Grant (The Personal Memoirs of US Grant) carried his friend Mark Twain.