George Washington (February 22, 1732, a plantation Pops Creek, Westmoreland County, Virginia – December 14, 1799, Mount Vernon, ibid), American statesman and military leader, the first President of the United States (1789-1897), commander of the Army colonists during the American Revolution, the chairman of the Constitutional Convention (1787).
Son of a wealthy planter, slave owner, George, 11 years old lost his father and the formation of his personality significant influence older half-brother Lawrence. Was educated at home, Washington lot of time to educate them. Being a slave owner, he did not approve of slavery, but he felt freed slaves still far in the future. Since 1749, George performed the duties of the county surveyor Culpepper. After his brother’s death (1752) inherited a large estate in Mount Vernon with 18 slaves, as well as the rank of Major was the commander of one of the four counties of Virginia militia. George Washington took part in the Ohio Company, which sought to seize land west of the Appalachians to the Ohio River Valley. In 1755, he participated in a failed expedition to the French colonists Virgin Fort Duquesne in Ohio. Since the beginning of the Seven Years’ War (1756) Washington as a colonel led troops Virgin militia, which was obtained guard the western border of the colony. In 1759 he resigned, and in the same year he married a wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis, (1731-1802).
In the years 1758-1774, Washington was elected to the House of the citizens of Virginia, at one time filled the post of judge of the county
Fairfax. As the host plantations (to 1760 before it was 49 slaves), he was convinced from their own experience in the irrationality of the colonial policy of Great Britain, its desire to limit the development of trade and industry in the colonies. George Washington criticized the actions of the colonial authorities, promoted a boycott of British goods, but disapproves of violence perceived excesses, like “Boston Tea Party” (1773). In 1774-1775 he was one of the representatives of Virginia to the Continental Congress. Convinced of the futility of trying to reach a mutually acceptable agreement with the parent colony, George Washington, DC after the first colonist’s clashes with British soldiers ostentatiously dressed in military uniforms. June 15, 1775 Congress elected him commander of the Continental Army (Continental Army), which he led throughout the War of Independence in North America (1775-1783). Washington’s election was due to his military experience and the fact that he, as a compromise figure, enjoyed the support of Virginia and Massachusetts. As commander of Washington showed integrity, courage, perseverance, talent commander and organizer. Create an army of militias; he went to her long and arduous journey of defeats and victories of the Siege of Boston (1776), for which he was awarded a gold medal by Congress aide, until the surrender of the British troops at Yorktown (1781). Congress has repeatedly provided the army commander wide, even dictatorial powers, but every time George Washington has used these powers very sparingly, without encroaching on the supremacy of the power of Congress. During the war, the Continental Army spent almost his entire fortune, also refused a salary during the war. Washington was popular among the masses, and the struggle which led to the triumph of the revolution. At the end of the war, a group of officers of the Continental Army organized a conspiracy and invited to Washington to become a monarch, but he rejected that offer. In November 1783, after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the commander resigned from all authority and resigned.
After the war he returned to Mount Vernon, engaged in plantation management, but remained in the focus of public and political attention. In the years 1786-1787, George Washington led the army to crush the rebellion of farmers led by Daniel Shays. Supporter of strengthening the central government, Washington was elected president of the Constitutional Convention (1787), who developed the text of the U.S. Constitution, acting with some changes and now. Thanks to his efforts, Virginia ratified the Constitution in 1787. The popularity and prestige of George Washington led his election to the presidency, which he won April 30, 1789. In 1792 was elected to a new four-year term. As president, Washington sought to establish in the political life of constitutional provisions, contributed to the creation of government, trying to find the best balance in the functioning of the various branches of government, laid the foundations of the U.S. political system. Washington its first government formed, trying to balance a number of political and personal interests. Although he was a supporter of a strong central government, the leading role of the federal government was invited leaders of the opposing political groupings – the Federalist Alexander Hamilton and advocate of “states’ rights” by Thomas Jefferson. The president himself has tried to play the role of supra-party leader. Thus, the United States laid the foundation of the two-party political system. In the struggle of parties won a top Hamilton, who with the support of the president began to implement measures to regulate financial policy and program development on Industrial Road. Support for the president of the Federalist line led to aggravation of the political situation, as led to growing discontent at the state level. During Washington’s presidency was active development land west of the Appalachians. Resistance Indian president strongly suppressed by military force, forcing many native people to cede territory. In 1794, in Western Pennsylvania Liquor riot broke out, caused by the reluctance of farmers to pay taxes on whiskey. George Washington without hesitation suppressed by force of arms the speech, demonstrating the strength of the federal government. In this case, after the trial leaders of the uprising were pardoned them.
In foreign policy, George Washington played for the U.S. non-interference in the confrontation of the European powers. U.S. president welcomed the start of the French Revolution, but its development along the path of mass terror and civil war caused his conviction. After the outbreak of war with revolutionary France, a coalition of European monarchs (1793), Washington refused the alliance commitments to the US-French agreement in 1778, and issued a special proclamation of neutrality. In November of 1794 with Great Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which relieved the tension in relations between the two countries? This treaty created a wave of criticism in the U.S. for excessive concessions to the former metropolis. Was more favorable to the contract Pinckney (1795), set the border between the U.S. and Spanish possessions and leaving the Americans freedom of navigation on the Mississippi. A kind of testament to Washington’s “Farewell message, issued on 19 September 1796. In it, the outgoing president urged citizens to strengthen the union of states, not to undermine the foundations of the constitution and the political system, to avoid the “damaging effects of party spirit.” George Washington also bequeathed “to maintain peace and harmony with all countries” to develop trade relations with them, but to have “as little political connections.” This provision was the basis of the principle of isolationism, which defined the contours of U.S. foreign policy until the mid-20th century. Refusing to run for president for the third time, George Washington has given rise to the tradition that the U.S. president takes office no more than two consecutive terms. As a supporter of the gradual abolition of slavery, he bequeathed to free all the slaves he personally owned.
His last years were the president at Mount Vernon with his family and many visitors. His authority was claimed in an aggravation of relations with France in the summer of 1798, when George Washington was again appointed commander of the U.S. Army with the rank of lieutenant general. December 12, 1799, making a detour top of their possessions, Washington is exposed to rain and snow, cold and two days later he died. December 18, he was buried at Mount Vernon.
By mourning Congress resolution Gen. Henry Lee described Washington as “first in war, first in peace and first days in the hearts of citizens.” The name of the first president of the United States are the country’s capital, the state, the lake and the island, mountain and canyon, many communities, colleges and universities, the streets and squares. In 1888, in the U.S. capital, was inaugurated a monument to George Washington (169-meter arrow). His portrait is on the one-dollar bill. One of the great figures of American history, it is recognized in the U.S. as the “father of his country”.