Ronald Reagan full name Ronald Wilson Reagan, born on February 6, 1911, Tampico, Illinois is an American politician, the fortieth President of the United States in 1981-1989 from the Republican Party, from 1937 to the early 1960s, actor Hollywood, president of the Screen Actors Guild of America in 1947-1952 and 1959.
The ancestors of the future president of the United States were landless Irish peasants. His grandfather, John-Michael Reagan in the second half of the 19th century, came to America and settled in Illinois. Here, in 1883, his son was born John Edward (Jack prefers to call himself) – the future father Ronald. Jack Reagan worked all his life by the seller in various stores, tried to establish his own business selling shoes, but to succeed in commerce prevented him addicted to alcohol and gambling. Jack’s wife, she was the Anglo-Scottish descent Nellie Clyde Wilson. The family had two sons – Senior Neal (born 1909) and a younger Ronald Reagan. Moreover, if the Nile was baptized in the Catholic faith, at the request of Ronald mother was Protestant. After graduating from college in Eureka (Illinois), Ronald worked as a sports commentator on radio. Then he decided to try his luck in Hollywood.
A tall, handsome, confident guy with experience in radio, not out of a job in a factory of dreams. Since 1937, Ronald Reagan always acted in films, mostly, however, in low-budget films. Gain popularity acting break Reagan and failed, though starred in more than fifty films. More success he achieved on trade union lines. In 1937, to protect the rights of actors and regulate their relations with employers created the Screen Actors Guild of America. In 1938, Reagan joined the Guild and took an active part in its work. He willingly spoke at meetings, served on the various committees and was soon elected board member Screen Actors Guild. In 1940, Reagan married the rising star of Hollywood actress Jane Wyman. In December 1941, the United States entered World War II; Ronald enlisted in the Army and in 1942-1945 worked in the United States Air Force information.
After demobilization, Ronald Reagan returned to Hollywood, was restored by the Screen Actors Guild board member of America, and in 1947 was elected president of the Guild. The new leader of the trade union of actors participated actively campaign to “expose the facts of Communist infiltration in Hollywood,” to testify as a prosecution witness at the Committee on UN-American Activities (1947), was personally involved in the expulsion of a number of Hollywood film personalities suspected leftists. Later it became known that a secret agent Ronald Reagan worked with the FBI and wrote to inform on their colleagues. Despite so ugly and reputation obscurantist, Reagan managed to gain a firm foothold in the top of the Screen Actors Guild, and for six years he served as its president. The last time he was elected to the post in 1959, before going into politics.
Unlike Ronald Reagan, the artistic career of his wife, Jane Wyman developed successfully. She starred in popular films, received large fees, and in 1948 for taking part in the film “Johnny Belinda” was awarded the prize “Oscar” for Best Actress. However, the same in 1948 their marriage ended, children, Maureen and Michael stayed with his mother. Reagan survived the difficult gap. With children, he occasionally met, but the relationship with Jane were broken even mention his ex-wife was considered unacceptable. In March 1952, Ronald married a second time, as the Hollywood actress Nancy Davis (born 1921). The marriage was a happy and long life. Nancy left aspiring actor dreams and devoted to her family. In 1952, the couple had a daughter, Patricia, in 1958, the son of Ronald Prescott.
Over the years, Ronald Reagan acted less as an actor, more engaging purely administrative activities. In 1951, there was an event largely determine the future of Reagan: The company “General Electric” invited him to become the leading television series designed to create a positive image in the eyes of millions of Americans. Since Reagan became the face of “General Electric”. This work has been associated with frequent visits at the company throughout the United States, had a lot to speak at meetings of shareholders, the local businessmen. In his speeches, Reagan praised American values, denounced the Communists stood for free enterprise and criticized the federal government, which broke away from the real life and crushes business exorbitant taxes.
Charming and solid, tall and slender, able to hold the camera, from a professional Hollywood smile, Ronald Reagan could make a positive impression on a large audience and a narrow circle of persons in private. No wonder the English entrenched him the epithet Great Communicator – The grand master of communication. Began to advise him to go into politics, to try to become a member of the legislative chamber of any state. And Reagan himself was not averse to try out in the political arena. Among other things, work on “General Electric” well paid, which allowed Reagan in 1956 to build a mansion in the upscale district of the Pacific Palisades, a suburb of Los Angeles.
In the late 1950s, Ronald Reagan was active in the California branch of the Democratic Party – Hollywood has always been a stronghold of the Democrats. But after his election in 1960, President John F. Kennedy, conservatives like Reagan Democrats were in the camp is not for the court, and in 1962 he joined the Republican Party. During the presidential election campaign in 1964 Reagan was an active supporter of the conservative Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. His emotional speech in support Goldwater televised all over America and created the image of Reagan, a leader of the conservative wing of the Republican Party. Take a leadership position, not having this almost any reason, as no one knew how Ronald Reagan and soon he was running for governor of California. Here it was found that voted for Reagan – he appealed to voters in its simplicity, the fact that I was not clever of the university, spoke bluntly about the excessive bureaucracy and the Communist threat, but without the frenzied fanaticism, and with a charming smile. In 1966, the hour of triumph: Ronald Reagan won over to his side almost a million votes from the working class, traditionally voted for Democrats, and was elected governor of California. At first, his success seemed incident; the actor-governor even for America was very extravagant. Moreover, Ronald Reagan did not hide his extremely conservative views, which on a broad anti-war, student and the Negro movement swept the United States in the sixties looked sharp dissonance. Thanks to Soviet international journalists California governor was known in the USSR. Reagan liked to quote, resulting in his sentence as an example of backward and dense anti-American provincial political elite.
Regan little interest in current affairs, did not intervene in the economy. Even as president, Ronald Reagan did not work more than four hours a day. Issues that require special training, he completely trusted professionals. Throughout his political activities Reagan believed that government regulation of the economy is ruining that solid social guarantees kill ordinary Americans have an incentive to productive work and the traditional spirit of entrepreneurship.
In 1975, over Reagan’s second term as Governor of California. He made the decision to take part in the presidential race, but Republicans prefer candidate incumbent Gerald Ford. Elections in 1980 were for Reagan’s last chance to become president of the United States, as his approach to the critical age for the policy of seventy years. In the second half of the 1970s there was a revolution in Iran and Nicaragua, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan caused the explosion of the U.S. anti-communist hysteria, which contributed to the popularity of Ronald Reagan. He won the election in 1980 and became the fortieth president of the United States.
The first half of President Ronald Reagan (1981-1985) was marked by the deterioration of Soviet-American relations. President initiated a new round of the arms race, trying on the basis of technological and economic power of America, to achieve overwhelming military superiority over the USSR. Billions of dollars have been invested in the program “Strategic Defense Initiative” (SDI), which is fully operational and has not been carried out before the start of the 21st century.
Important place in the foreign policy of Reagan took control of left-radical and anti-American movements in Central America and the Caribbean. His administration has made a tremendous effort in trying to overthrow the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua. Squads “contras”, fought against the Sandinistas, enjoyed the full support of the Americans, received arms and money from the U.S. semi-legal and illegal ways. All-out U.S. support for armed groups that fought against the pro-regimes in different countries, has received in the press called “Reagan Doctrine.”
During Ronald Reagan‘s presidency was a reduced tax on individuals and corporations with high incomes. By reducing the costs of social security was held the largest in U.S. history, reduction of budget expenditures. The economic policy of the new president was different reducing government regulation and control over the activities of entrepreneurial companies, especially in the transport and finance. These steps led to a lively entrepreneurial activity on Wall Street for five years have seen explosion rate securities. In 1983 he was overcome recession and stagnation, the economy started to grow, which did not stop until the end of the Ronald Reagan presidency. Overall, 1980 went down in history as the period of America’s economic prosperity, low inflation and unemployment, although at this time was recorded unprecedented growth of the budget deficit and public debt of the USA. The economic policy of the Reagan Administration was called “Reaganomics.” It was based on the theory that lowering tax rates encourages the inflow of capital in the economy, which in turn leads to an increase in the number of jobs, economic growth and, consequently, an increase in revenue for the tax.
In 1984, Ronald Reagan was re-elected U.S. president. The rise to power in the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev changed the climate of Soviet-American relations. Reagan was able to assess the situation pragmatically and in 1985-1988, he took part in one of four official and unofficial meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev. In 1988, U.S. President visited the Soviet Union. Gorbachev stays in power over the collapse of the world socialist system and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many Americans believe that the victory of the “cold war” went to America, thanks to the personal qualities of Ronald Reagan. They believe that his tough anti-communist stance and the Soviet Union imposed an arms race caused irreparable damage to an already experienced difficulties Soviet economy.
The last two years of Reagan’s presidency was marred by the work of “Iran-Contra”, became public in November 1986. Exposing Iran as a terrorist state, the presidential administration, with the mediation of Israel secretly sold weapons to Iran. Profits from these sales were used to buy weapons for the Nicaraguan “contras”. Buy arms for the “contras” were inconsistent not only with international law, but also violated U.S. laws – at one time adopted a special amendment Boland explicitly prohibiting assistance “contras”.
Following the resignation of Reagan and his wife Nancy settled in California. In 1991, the California town Simi Valley opened Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. In late 1994, Reagan announced that he was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and no longer appears in public.