If we go back in time, getting closer to the big bang, we become more and more of our familiar ideas about the universe lost. No galaxies, no stars, and even more closer to the big bang no atoms, no atomic nuclei, electrons, quarks, and not even any elementary particles. Only energy, incredibly high temperature and pressure, is left in the first second after the Big Bang.
From this extremely hot ball of energy, the entire universe originated. Eventually Physicists think they can explain what happened, although the time of the big bang it, to date, remains a mystery. Scared in the first seconds after the Big.
- The big bang theory
- The universe
- The structure of the universe
- Pair production
- Where and how is research into elementary particles
- The first second of the Big Bang
- The first minutes of the Big Bang
- Still later, after the big bang
The big bang theory
The Big Bang is a denomination of the cosmological theory based on the general theory of relativity assumes that 13,798 (with an uncertainty of 0.037) billion years ago the universe began from a very hot point (approximately 10 28 K), with an infinite density, called a singularity. During the big bang space and time would have been incurred. The founder of this theory was Prof.dr.Mgr, Georges Henri Joseph Edouard Lemaître versatile Belgian Catholic priest, astronomer, cosmologist, mathematician and physicist. He came in 1927 to the conclusion that the universe was expanding, after examination at redshifts in the spectrum of galaxies. He also calculated the constant (speed of expansion) two years before Edwin Hubble did. The results of investigations by Edwin Hubble confirmed the thesis of Georges Lemaitre. Georges Lemaitre also concluded that an expanding universe should have a starting point. In 1931, he brings the argument against the then scientific opinions in forward that the universe should ever be started. As a super dense mass He called this “the day without yesterday” because he concluded that not only space and matter then came but this time also started. The big bang theory is nowadays the standard creation myth for modern science.
If we consider the universe as a whole is globally homogeneous mixture of matter (both visible and dark-matter), radiation and dark energy. Matter we know in the form of protons, electrons and neutrons that make up atoms from which everything exists. What dark matter is made exactly the scientists have not been able to fathom, although there are several theories exist. Dark energy is a mysterious repulsive force that is responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. What is dark energy or from which it is made is still a mystery, a mystery that several scientists undoubtedly provide many headaches.
The structure of the universe
As we saw in the previous chapter, there is a universe of visible and dark matter and dark energy. Scientists have tried to make a calculation of the total amount of mass / energy that are present in the universe, and how the distribution is built up. The present theory assumes that the universe:
- 74% consists of dark energy,
- 22% is dark matter,
- 4% of normal visible matter exists.
This division is not always so. We go back in time, as four billion years, scientist’s estimate that over the matter and dark energy ratio was balanced. In the time before that matter was by far dominant. But matter is not been dominant all the time. When the universe is 50,000 years old was because the amount of matter in equilibrium with the amount of radiation. So the first year was 50,000 radiations in the universe by far the most abundant. The cosmic background radiation, which arose when the universe was 379,000 years old, is proof of this.
The four fundamental forces
Today we have four fundamental forces in the universe that the appearance and behavior of all determine around us. These include the gauge bosons:
- The strong nuclear force, which the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of atoms hold together by gluons,
- The electromagnetic force, which the electrons in an atom are holding by means of photons, the weak nuclear force, which plays a role in various decay processes through W-bosons and Z bosons,
- The force of gravity, which holds the material on a large scale with one another by means of the not yet detected (so hypothetical) graviton.
These four forces are today very different properties. But scientists assume that it was four forces in the first moment of the big bang is actually a force (primal force). In theoretical physics one tries to reconcile a theory, it forces this would be the theory of everything or unification theory should be. This theory would all elementary particles and fundamental forces of nature together in a model.
|Fundamental force||Reach||Affects||Temperature of unification of the
|Temperature of unification
|Temperature of unification
the theory of everything
|strong nuclear force||10 -15 meters||matter consisting of quarks
such as protons and neutrons
|10 28 Kelvin||10 32 Kelvin|
|electromagnetic force||infinite||charged particles
such as protons and electrons
|10 28 Kelvin||10 32 Kelvin|
|weak nuclear force||10 -17 meters||leptons such as electrons,
muons and neutrinos
|10 28 Kelvin||10 32 Kelvin|
|gravity||infinite||all||10 32 Kelvin|
Source: Astronomy today 7th edition (1)
The discovery (by chance in 1965) of the cosmic background radiation proves that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely high temperature and pressure. To get what is happening with radiation and matter in a field with an extremely high pressures and temperatures some insight some knowledge of “pair production” is needed. Pair production at two photons (electromagnetic radiation) to create an elementary particle and its antiparticle. By means of pair production matter may thus arise directly from electromagnetic radiation. The reverse, that a particle and its antiparticle collide, is also possible and this in turn creates electromagnetic radiation (according to the law of conservation of energy and matter, and according to Einstein’s famous formula, E = mc ²). The higher the temperature of a radiation field, the more energy a photon can have the greater the mass of the particle can occur. Each particle has a critical temperature above which pair production is possible and not below a threshold temperature. For electrons, this is about 6 x 10 9 Kevin. For protons that nearly 2000 times as heavy, the threshold temperature 10 13 Kevin. All around us, all matter in the universe is created from these few production when the early universe turned off and cooled. Yet there’s something not gone quite right, there should be at any given time more particles than antiparticles is formed. We are the proof itself because we can ask ourselves this and a universe made up of particles around us.
Where and how is research into elementary particles
Research into the building and creation of elementary particles takes place in a particle accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland (CERN) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in New York. Here let it charged particles accelerate until they approach the speed of light and then collide. This conveys the idea of Albert Einstein that energy can be converted into mass and mass into energy according to E = mc ². A particle accelerator accelerates two particles to nearly the speed of light, and gives them that way a lot of energy. When the particles collide all this energy is once again free, creating a shower of new particles. In this way, scientists hope to discover. New fundamental particles
The first second of the Big Bang
Everything we know about the first second of the big bang is mainly theoretical, that is confirmed by observation and research or has yet to be confirmed. It is set in the bizarre world of quantum mechanics where things arise and disappear spontaneously. Here’s a great role for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland (CERN) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in New York to find answers to the many unanswered questions concerning this theory answers.
The Planck epoch: from 0 to 10 -43 seconds
From the beginning to the first 10 -43 seconds after the Big Bang (the Planck epoch called) are various theories with different predictions. In this period the current four fundamental forces were probably compiled in a fundamental force. Current theories are mainly the pinch quantum effects that occur at this level. Scientists hope that the unification theory, loop quantum gravity theory or string theory will eventually lead. To a better understanding of this period at the end of the Planck period the temperature of the universe was dropped to 10 32 Kelvin. The area we are talking about here has a diameter of 10 -33 cm. It consisted mainly of a series of radiation and subatomic particles that had arisen. Pair production by at this temperature, gravity pulled away from the primal power. Just as there are for (matter) particles a threshold temperature exists, it exists to force particles as well.
The grand unification epoch: from 10 -43 to 10 -36 seconds
During the grand unification of the other three forces, even going as bundled as being a force further the temperature fell to 10 27 Kelvin. The earliest elementary particles (and anti-particle) can be made by pair production. This period ends when the strong nuclear force detaches itself from the electromagnetic force for 10 -36 seconds.
The electroweak epoch
The inflation period: 10 -36 to 10 -32 seconds
Between 10 -36 seconds and 10 -32 seconds, the early universe expanded exponentially fast. This inflation increased the volume of the early universe by a factor of at least 10 78. Some scientists assume that this inflation was due to the decoupling of gravity and the “primal force”. Inflation stops when a reheating occurs and the temperature is somewhere between 10 27 and 10 28 Kelvin. The area now has a diameter of at least 100 cm, an increase of a factor of 10 35 since the Planck epoch. At the end of this period, the universe was dense, hot plasma of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. The inflation period is part of the electroweak epoch.
The electroweak epoch: from 10 -36 to 10 -12 seconds
This period is called the electroweak epoch and began when the strong nuclear force is decoupled from weak nuclear force at a temperature of 10 Kelvin 28. The particle interaction during this period were energetic enough to accommodate large numbers of exotic particles to arise, including the W & Z boson and the Higgs boson (the boson which is supposed to give all other particles mass). This period ends when the weak nuclear force detaches itself from the electromagnetic force for 10 -12 seconds.
The quark epoch: from 10 -12 to 10 -6 seconds
The universe continues to expand and cool. This period is called the quark epoch. During this period, the four fundamental forces separately. The universe is composed of quark-gluon plasmas and other elementary particles. However, the temperature was still too high for gluons to combine into hadrons. Quarks Particle and antiparticle of all kinds were made continuously and destroyed in collisions. These conditions have now been replicated in 2012 at CERN and LHC.
The hadrons period: of 10 -6 to 1 second
The temperature drops during this period 13 to 10 Kelvin. The temperature is cool enough for gluons for linking to hadrons. Quarks this has the effect that hadron such as protons and neutrons, are able to form. During this period also occurs for one reason or another baryogenese. Baryogenese cause an asymmetry between baryons and anti-baryons which will ultimately remain more baryons in the universe (protons and neutrons).
The leptons period: from 1 to 10 seconds
The temperature has now dropped to 10 10 Kelvin and the universe has reached a diameter of 10 cm 19,5. At this temperature still arose leptons and anti-leptons by annihilation disappeared again. When the temperature dropped further the creation of leptons and anti-leptons stopped. A large part of these leptons and anti-leptons had disappeared by annihilation but not all.
The first minutes of the Big Bang
The big bang nucleosynthesis period from 10 seconds to 20 minutes
This period is called photons period and lasts until about 379,000 years after the Big Bang. From 10 seconds to 20 minutes, the big bang nucleosynthesis place. The temperature is further decreased by the expansion to 10 9 Kelvin. The density of the universe is about as like air. Electron and its antiparticle, the positron annihilate and from this arise again photons. The temperature has dropped so far that neutrons and protons can no longer move freely. Together As a result, there are seven times more protons and neutrons. Meanwhile bind protons and neutrons to arise deuterium nuclei (a stable isotope of hydrogen). Almost all of these hydrogen atoms to helium nuclei in the melt phase. Also other elements, such as tritium, helium-3, helium-4, and lithium-7 generated in that time slot.
Still later, after the big bang
After about 379,000 years the electrons and nuclei combined and now created the first atoms (mostly hydrogen) and disconnects itself from the radiation and matter is largely unhindered through space. This radiation is now known as the cosmic microwave background. It will take from here are 100 to 200 million years before the first stars are, by density fluctuations develop.
When the universe was 379,000 years old, it was cooled to 300 Kelvin. Electrons were bound to protons and neutrons and there were hydrogen isotopes. Photons are no longer hindered by the interaction with electrons causing the universe became transparent. This early light (photons) is today known as the cosmic microwave background. Because the universe is 1000 times in the meantime has become greater, the temperature of the background has decreased to 3 Kelvin.
The process in which a particle and its antiparticle collide and annihilate each other resulting in energy. The total mass of the particles is converted into energy according to E = mc ². The energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Actually, the opposite of pair production.
In cosmology baryogenese is the general term for hypothetical physical processes that cause an asymmetry between baryons and anti-baryons in the early universe that resulted in the matter now part of the universe. It causes a mix of protons for each 100,000,001 100,000,000 antiprotons (and 100 million photons).
An elementary particle is a particle which is not further is to split into even smaller particles. According to current models (standard model) are the fermions and bosons. In the past, neutrons and protons were among the elementary particles and even longer ago it was thought that the atom was indivisible. Matter particles are fermions, and these can be divided into leptons and quarks. The carrier particles are bosons, and these are responsible for the four fundamental forces in the universe. This scientific puzzle has not yet been fully resolved, and who knows what the future and better measurement gives us surprises.
Planck time and length
Planck time is smallest meaningful length of time, coined by Max Planck. It is the time that light needs to overcome. A Planck length A Plank length is the smallest length that occurs in the cosmos. It is the incredibly small length of 1.616199 (97) x10 -35 either 0,000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.016 16199 (97) meters
A singularity is a point with an infinitely small volume and infinite density large. The space / time are so strongly curved, that space and time actually cease to exist here. In this respect, the ordinary laws of physics no longer apply. (Courtesy usa news).